Choose your font:
 Mukta Malar
 Open Sans Condensed
 Source Sans Pro


[Valid RSS] RSS

Database - (CIANE)

Description of this bibliographical database (CIANE website)
Currently 3109 records
YouTube channel (tutorial)

Created on : 21 Apr 2004
Modified on : 02 Dec 2007

 Modify this record
Do not follow this link unless you know an editor’s password!

Share: Facebook logo   Tweeter logo   Hard

Bibliographical entry (without author) :

Protecting the pelvic floor: obstetric management to prevent incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. Review. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Sep;88(3):470-8.

Author(s) :

Handa VL, Harris TA, Ostergard DR.

Year of publication :


URL(s) :…

Résumé (français)  :

Abstract (English)  :

OBJECTIVES: To review the literature regarding the effects of childbirth on the muscles, nerves, and connective tissue of the pelvic floor, review the evidence to support an association between childbirth and anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse; and present recommendations for the prevention of these sequelae.

DATA SOURCES: Sources were identified from a MEDLINE search of English-language articles published from 1984 to 1995. Additional sources were identified from references cited in relevant research articles.


SELECTION: We studied articles on the following topics: anatomy of the pelvic floor association of childbirth with neuromuscular injury, biomechanical and morphologic alterations in muscle function, and connective tissue structure and function; the long-term effects of childbirth on continence and pelvic organ support; and the effects of obstetric interventions on the pelvic floor.

TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Articles were reviewed and summarized. An overview of the structure and function of the pelvic floor was developed to provide a context for subsequent data. Childbirth was found to be associated with a variety of muscular and neuromuscular injuries of the pelvic floor that are linked to the development of anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse. Risk factors for pelvic floor injury include forceps delivery, episiotomy, prolonged second-stage of labor, and increased fetal size. Cesarean delivery appears to be protective, especially if the patient does not labor before delivery.

CONCLUSION: The pelvic floor plays an important role in continence and pelvic organ support. Obstetricians may be able to reduce pelvic floor injuries by minimizing forceps deliveries and episiotomies, by allowing passive descent in the second stage, and by selectively recommending elective cesarean delivery.

Sumário (português)  :

Resumen (español)  :

Comments :

Argument (français) :

Les obstétriciens peuvent réduire les blessures du plancher pelvien en minimisant les accouchements avec forceps et épisiotomies, en laissant faire la progression dans la deuxième phase du travail, et en utilisant la césarienne de manière sélective.

Argument (English):

Argumento (português):

Argumento (español):

Keywords :

➡ c-section/caesarean ; prevention ; perineal/vaginal tears ; incontinence/prolapsus ; episiotomy ; instrumental delivery ; forceps delivery

Author of this record :

Cécile Loup — 21 Apr 2004
➡ latest update : Marion Corbe — 02 Dec 2007

Discussion (display only in English)
➡ Only identified users

 I have read the guidelines of discussions and I accept all terms (read guidelines)


New expert query --- New simple query

Creating new record --- Importing records

User management --- Dump database --- Contact


This database created by Alliance francophone pour l'accouchement respecté (AFAR) is managed
by Collectif interassociatif autour de la naissance (CIANE,
It is fed by the voluntary contributions of persons interested in the sharing of scientific data.
If you agree with this project, you can support us in several ways:
(1) contributing to this database if you have a minimum training in documentation
(2) or financially supporting CIANE (see below)
(3) or joining any society affiliated with CIANE.
Sign in or create an account to follow changes or become an editor.
Contact bibli(arobase) for more information.

Valid CSS! Valid HTML!
Donating to CIANE (click “Faire un don”) will help us to maintain and develop sites and public
databases towards the support of parents and caregivers’ informed decisions with respect to childbirth